Friday, November 29, 2019

Willa Cather Essays - Willa Cather, Edith Lewis, My Ntonia

Willa Cather There are few female authors that have had an impact on literature as great as that of Willa Cather. Not only was she an exquisite author, but she broke through into writing during a time when few female authors were successful. Her life, which was directly influential to her writing, was of a simple nature. However, she was able to over come a drab, mundane life, and turn her experiences into stories that would be enjoyed by many generations. Willa Siebert Cather was born in her maternal grandmother's home in 1873 in the western region of Virginia (Robinson). Cather's name was originally Willela (after her father's younger sister who died as a child), but the family always called her "Willie." They did this because as a child Willa altered her name in the family Bible and insisted that she was named after her uncle William Sibert Boak (Woodress). In the spring of 1883, when Willa was nine, the Cathers moved to a farm near Red Cloud, Nebraska. Cather described her thoughts of this land to an interviewer. She said, "As we drove further and further out into the country , I felt a good deal as we had come to the end of everything." (Cather quoted in Woodress). They came to Nebraska by train because the journey by wagon would have been long and tiring. Cather's first home in the state of Nebraska was with her Grandfather. (Robinson). "Its most characteristic feature which she described faithfully in My Antonia was a basement kitchen and dining room." (Robinson) However, a year later the Cather's left the farm to live in the town of Red Cloud, so the children could attend school. Red Cloud was a town of 2,500 people. The people of Red Cloud played an important part in the life and work of Willa Cather. There were many people in the town who inspired her and "she sought interesting adults wherever she could find them." (Woodress). Two of Red Cloud's doctors became friends with Willa, and sometimes let her come along on their calls. Cather also medically experimented on animals with a set of medical instruments, this upset and disgusted some of the citizens of Red Cloud. (Robinson). In high school Willa Cather had greatest ambition was to become a doctor, a profession in which few women excelled. Cather graduated from high-school in June of 1890, at the age of sixteen (Woodress). She was the only student of the three who graduated who intended to pursue college. She would enter the University of Nebraska at Lincoln the following September (Robinson). Cather was also inspired by the actors and actresses who came to perform at the town's Opera House. The children of Red Cloud would put on their own shows where Willa seemed to be an adequate actress, but she always played a boy (Robinson). This was a great surprise because at the time, many women did not perform. Rather younger boys would play the female roles in a play. She expressed a vast dislike for skirts and dresses (Woodress) and later when she attended the University of Nebraska she continued to dress in a boyish manner (Daiches). She wore suspenders, starched shirts and insisted while in college to continue trying out for the male roles in college theater (Woodress). Cather went to Lincoln with the intent of studying science. She was very interested in botany, astronomy and chemistry (Woodress). However, the event that changed her heart toward writing occurred in March of 1891. A professor of Cather's assigned an essay to be written, and the professor was so impressed with Cather's work that without telling her, he sent it to the Journal, the towns paper. He also sent it to a literary magazine for students called The Hesperian (Robinson). Cather opened the Sunday paper to find her essay in print and from that time on she forgot about medicine and concentrated on writing (Woodress). Throughout her college years Cather continued to write for the Journal and took any chance to earn money writing for the paper. Even if that meant putting aside her school work to do it. In the two years she wrote for the Journal she produced over 300 pieces, many of which were essays (Woodress). Cather became the Journal's drama critic and she quickly made a name for herself. "Her work showed a maturity and poise not expected in so young a critic, and her knowledge of drama and literature, continental and classic, as well as English was extensive" (Robinson). During her last

Monday, November 25, 2019

Mister and Master

Mister and Master Mister and Master Mister and Master By Mark Nichol Yes, mister and master are related, the one originally being a variant of the other. They, and a number of compounds and some associated terms, all derive from the Latin verb magistrare, which means â€Å"subjugate.† Master, which entered the English language from the Old French verb maistrier, came to also mean â€Å"learn all about,† â€Å"become adept at,† or â€Å"overcome.† (It also applies to creating something from which copies will be made.) The Latin noun magister, meaning â€Å"chief† or â€Å"teacher,† led to the use of the word- again, its spelling influenced by the Old French form- to mean â€Å"one in authority.† It now pertains to someone who is or was an exemplar of an artistic or scientific field; a ruler, owner, or employer; a victor or one who has control; a male teacher or an expert artisan or worker; one who has earned a master’s degree; or a commander of a merchant vessel or, formerly, a specialist in navigation aboard a naval sailing ship (see Captain vs. Master). It also refers to devices or mechanisms that control others, or to an original from which copies can be made. Finally, it is a title of respect, though little used today. As an adjective, master means â€Å"excellent† or â€Å"skilled,† or â€Å"dominant† or â€Å"predominant,† or pertains to objects from which others are copied. The adjectives masterful and masterly mean â€Å"indicative of a master,† though some writers prefer to make a distinction between them so that the former is reserved for the sense of â€Å"domineering,† but in prevailing usage they are interchangeable. The adverbial form of the former is masterfully, and masterly also functions as an adverb. The condition of being a master (in the sense of being in control) is mastery. Compound words in which master is the first element (and in which the word’s function is adjectival) include mastermind, meaning â€Å"creative or intellectual organizer† (the word, which at times has a criminal connotation, is also used as a verb in all senses); masterpiece and masterwork, which both describe a crowning creative achievement; and masterstroke, which refers to a clever or otherwise impressive effort or performance. Compounds in which master is the second element (and in which the word functions as a noun) are more common; among them are headmaster (â€Å"head teacher†), postmaster (â€Å"head of a post office†), and taskmaster (â€Å"overbearing boss†). A grandmaster is someone who has achieved the highest level of skill in chess, though in fiction the term also applies to experts in other pursuits, such as martial arts, and as an open compound it pertains to a leadership role in Freemasonry or in a chivalric order. Another compound that has developed additional senses is ringmaster; originally, it referred to the master of ceremonies- abbreviated MC, and emcee is an alternative spelling- who introduces circus performers as they enter the ring. Later, by extension, it acquired the sense of anyone who manages or orchestrates a performance or presentation. Words that retain the middle syllable of the Latin term include magistrate, meaning â€Å"judge,† and the adjectival magisterial, which (like its variant, magistral) pertains to the legal context but also has the neutral sense of â€Å"authoritative† and the pejorative connotation of â€Å"overbearing.† (The similar-sounding majesty is distantly related, from magnus, meaning â€Å"strong.†) Other words derived from magistrare include maestro, from the Italian word for master, referring to music conductors, directors, or composers, and â€Å"maà ®tre d’,† a truncation of maà ®tre d’hà ´tel, meaning â€Å"master of the house† and referring to a restaurant host, as well as mistral, which describes a cold Mediterranean wind. Mister developed as a variation on the use of master as a title, and, like the original, which it superseded in popular use as society became more egalitarian, it has faded from use. (Mister has also been used as a term of direct address when a man’s name is not known to the speaker.) The female equivalent is mistress, which has served as a title of deference, a designation for a governess or teacher, or a euphemism for â€Å"lover†; the dominant sense now is â€Å"female lover of a married man.† (Such social titles and their variations and connotations will be detailed in a later post.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 English Grammar Rules You Should Know75 Idioms and Expressions That Include â€Å"Break†Writing Styles (with Examples)

Friday, November 22, 2019

Gardasil Critique Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Gardasil Critique - Essay Example But is Gardasil all that it is cracked up to be After all, even when vaccinated, there is still a 30% incidence of cervical cancer. Not to mention, it has been reported that the vaccine will not protect against or treat infections in women who have already had infections with HPV -16, -18, -6, and/or -11. FDA Administrator Dr. Andrew von Eschenbach said the vaccine will have "a dramatic effect" on the health of women around the world. This vaccine is supposed to have a lot of side effects as well. Few incidents in the past have raised few concerns regarding this vaccine. As of 22 May 2007, 7 Victorian schoolgirls from Sacred Heart Girls' College were briefly hospitalized after receiving an injection of the Gardasil vaccine and were taken to the Monash Medical Centre. One was temporarily paralysed. Health authorities do not believe that these are directly related to the vaccine. Talking about major concerns, the first concern is that Gardasil may result in an increased number of cases of a cancer precursor among patients who are already infected by one of the four targeted HPV types when they're given the vaccine; and whose immune systems haven't eliminated the virus from their bodies, the AP reported. Secondly, any advantage provided by the vaccine in protecting against the four targeted HPV types could be offset by infection by the numerous other HPV types that aren't affected by the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

In what way might The Verb to Kill by Luisa Valenzuela be a political Essay

In what way might The Verb to Kill by Luisa Valenzuela be a political allegory - Essay Example It demonstrates how politicians get riches from the poor people, give empty promises and will always come back ‘with a different story for the poor to give them the votes. The verb to kill therefore demonstrates the capitalism of our politicians who are for selfish gains at the expenses of the lives of the electorates. â€Å"The verb to Kill† is a metaphor for the dehumanizing nature of the politicians. In this story, the poor girls who are also the narrators are eaten away or consumed by the daily lifestyle of the old man who is the protagonist. In this perspective, the writer of this article demonstrated how the individuals are â€Å"consumed† by the powerful politicians and leaders. The concept of consumption has been used in this story as a metaphor or allegory in the store to represent the high level of exploitation that these individuals are experiencing. When the writer of this article portrays the girls as being eaten by the daily life of the old man, the writer of this article outlines the kind of activities of the old man that are not beneficial to the young girls. This is unfortunate despite the fact that the young girls play an important role in the story and are very kind towards the man. The main narrator in â€Å"the verb to kill† asserts that their neighbor, the old man is a â€Å"degenerate murderer† and hence is fascinated by the kind of life style that they perceive this old man is leading. They also assert that the old man may not just be a rapist but also someone who eats â€Å"that last breath† (Valenzuela). In this perspective, the narrator claims here that the actions of the old man and his daily activities consume them. In this text, the idea of consumption has been used severally in the text from the beginning through to the end. The idea of consumption here therefore represents the nature of the old man and the notion of destruction and absorption of the girls by the old man neighbor. This is a llegory for the nature of some politicians who play politics just for their own benefits even if it means overlooking the morals and the norms of the society. It also represents the immoral nature of the politicians and the political game in general which demands for the politicians to leave different lives and compromise their morality at the expense of the society and those whom there are close to. The narrators have also demonstrated the fear for the idea of the old man rather than his reality. The idea of consumption and the presentation of the man as vampire are two causes of worry for the poor girls. This is a phenomenon that is common across the worlds’ politicians and their subjects. In politics people do not win because of what they are but because what the ideas they present to the people. The ideas that politicians often presents to the electorate as well as their past deed play an important role in their success. The electorates are often afraid of the idea and no t the person. This explains why the narrators fear this man’s idea and not his reality as their neighbor and an old man. The action of by the girls also demonstrates how they do not care about the old animals though they complain about the old man because of the nature of vampire. In this story, it is observable that there are three levels of individuals in the society. The top most individuals represented by the old man, the middle represented by the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Managerial Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Managerial Leadership - Essay Example In the development of a proper individual authentic journey report, there are several different tools of enquiry that can effectively be used. In writing this paper, an auto ethnographical approach has been utilized. Autoethnography provides the user with a basic platform whereby the writer is the main subject of the general enquiry and as such, the tool will prove to be invaluable in the writing of this paper. Authentic Leadership Report Introduction Background of the Report As the age of materialism gradually grids to a halt, the entire concept behind the authenticity of leadership has in recent times been receiving significant amounts of general attention as more and more people continue in the search for what exactly makes people happy and provides meaning especially to their work lives. People are nowadays seeking to try and establish more meaning in their everyday lives. The general concept of â€Å"meaning† and â€Å"authenticity† can be deemed as appearing to be almost the same. However, it due to the efforts of the major philosophical movement that is commonly referred to as existentialism that has consistently been carefully studying the concept of authenticity over a time-period spanning many centuries that we are now able to better understand what exactly is authenticity in addition to developing an exact connection as regards to its relationship to the general concept of meaning. By taking the time to conduct this authentic leadership report on my own person, I hope to be able to further develop my own capabilities as an authentic leader by carefully establishing all my authentic leadership qualities as well as working hard to ensure that I improve on those qualities that I note to be impeding my growth as an authentic leader in today’s modern society. I believe that as an authentic leader, I will be more able to work towards changing the general society’s common misconception that most leaders and especially those who a re in high positions within government and some of the large private corporations are invariably inauthentic. Report Aims and Objectives The prime aim of going through this journey of writing this authentic journey report was to try and establish what exactly were the main highlights of my life that invariably served to help me in my growth as an authentic leader in addition to playing a key role in defining my authentic leadership footprints. The world is steadily recovering from the recent global economic recession that was seen to affect many countries around the world. Although some of the country’s have successfully managed to rebuild their shattered economies, some countries in Europe such as Spain and Greece as still struggling with the effects of these recession a factor that has caused them to try and

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Tuition Fees In England

Tuition Fees In England English universities are well-known throughout the world for their excellence. Yet, in less than twenty years, Higher Education was reformed. Before 1988, Local Education Authorities was in charge of Higher Education, its funding, its functioning, and of students grants of its area. The adoption of the 1988 Education Act under Margaret Thatchers government marked the beginning of long series of reforms. The last to date made the headline news because of the students manifestations which followed from the bill. Indeed from 1998 to nowadays, the issue deals with the tuition fees a fee paid for instruction its legitimacy and its price. This issue is largely controversial even within the Labour party. Why such shift for prestigious Higher Education system? How the Higher Education was reformed? Why did students manifestations follow from the bill? To figure it out, we are going to focus at first on the creation of a new system in order to then analyse the rising of tuitions fees and the students protest and finally we are going to analyse the new students hardships. The creation of a new system a cost sharing system 1998 : Turning point 1998 marked a turning point in the history of English education the Local Education Authorities no longer covered the student scholar fees (ten years before, in 1988) and the students were then involved in the payment of fees for their study. Indeed, in 1996 the government commissioned a report on the funding of the Higher Education that is to say, how Higher Education should develop to meet the needs of the UK over the next 20 years. The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education was chaired by Sir Ronald Dearing Chancellor of the University of Nottingham. The report was published in 1997 and it stated that more than  £2 billion would be needed to adapt the Higher Education to the new demands (increasing numbers of students) and needs. The solution proposed was made up with a hundred recommendations. The most important one was the participation of the student on the payment of their own study. The report praised the introduction of the means-tested tuition fees based on familys income. The 1998 Teaching and Higher Education Act was the governmental response to this report. It was enacted under Tony Blairs government. It introduced the means tested tuition fees as follows: Student whose family income was inferior to  £23,000 per year would not pay tuition fees. Student whose family income was situated between  £23,000 and  £35,000 would pay a percentage fees in function of their means. The tuition fees would be  £1,000 per academic year. By setting this mean testing system, 1/3 of students would not have to pay tuition fees. Yet, the maintenance grants (grants to help students with the living costs) would be replaced by maintenance loans. Students would begin to pay off their loans when they would work and earn at least  £10,000 per year. It met little active opposition from students. But this act created debate within the Labour party itself, some members of the party were strict opponent to the end of the Free Higher Education. Reason of introduction of tuition fees But why did the government need to implement such a system? The major reason was the lack of funding in Higher Education. In less than 20 years the Higher Education shifted from an elite system to a mass system. Indeed, the number of students going to university rose from 6% to around 33% between 1962 and 1996. So, universities have to adapt their infrastructures, equipment, and by consequence they needed money. Moreover, the aim of the government was to make it more accessible for all students from all backgrounds with the introduction of mean testing tuition fees. Creation of top up fees In 2004 another measure would be adopted by the Labour Party. Despite the former act which created the tuition fees up to  £1,000, Tony Blairs government concluded that the funding of Higher Education was not enough. In this sense, the Labour Party proposed another act in 2004, The Higher Education Act. It enabled universities to set their own tuition fees depending on their own needs of funding: it was called top up fees. It could go up to  £3,000 per academic year. These tuition fees could be pay at the end of the degree, it would take the form of a loan student would pay off this loan when he would have a job and earn more than  £15,000 per year. The debt would be written off after 25 years. Another feature was the reintroduction of the maintenance grants in order to help the poorest students (yet students could win private bursaries through the universities competitive). The main objections of the opponents were the expensive fees which created pressure upon students, and they estimated the variable fees as the form of privatisation of Higher Education. Those measures were a first step to higher education reform. The government was going to take further measures in the forthcoming years. Tuition fees rising and students protest The investigation By November 2009, Gordon Browns government launched a new investigation on Higher Education; it would be a review on fees and university funding. It was chaired by Lord Browne of Madingley and composed of some Vice-Chancellor of Universities such as David Eastwood and Julia King. The Independent Review of The Higher Education Funding and Finance was published on October 2010. It established few principles such as more investment for Higher Education, fair access to all, affordable payments, same treatment for part-time students as full-time students, and underlined that no one should have to pay loans until they start to work. In order to respect those principles, the major proposals were the following ones: Universities could charge any fees it seemed necessary, there would be no cap the up-front fees were removed and replaced by tuition fees loans No means testing maintenance loans and additional financial support for poorest families (under  £60,000) which would be paid back only when the graduate would have an income of at least  £21,000 per year. If the graduates work stops whatever the reason the repayment stops. The debts would be written off after 30 years. The government proposal Meanwhile, the government passed from a labour government to a coalition one with the election of David Cameron as Prime Minister and Nick Clegg as Deputy Prime Minister in May 2010. The government proposal to the Browne Report responded on November 2010 and it included several features. The main one was the rejection of the Brownes proposal to remove the tuition fees cap, and government proposed to cap the tuition fees to  £9,000 per year. As for loans, government aligned itself with the Browne recommendations by declaring that students would begin to pay off once they would earn between  £15,000 and  £21,000. The MPs had to vote if they agreed or not on this proposal by December. The new elected Liberal Democrat had been pledged to the National Union of Students to not increase the tuition fees before being elected. Once the report was published, Nick Clegg, leader of Liberal Democrats, claimed that the Browne Report could be fair and sustainable. While the coalition government allowed the Liberal Democrats to abstain the vote on this issue, Nick Clegg wrote to his MPs I am painfully aware of the pledge we all made to voters on tuition fees ahead of the general election. Departing from that pledge will be one of the most difficult decisions of my political career. He was going to break his pledge. This bill sparked off some waves of demonstrations throughout the entire country. Students riots On November, 10th, students began to demonstrate against the government bill, and showed their anger towards the expensive rate of fees. It was organized by the National Union of Students (NUS) and the University and College Union (UCU) prior to the government vote in order to convince MPs to not vote in favour of the bill. Those demonstrations took place in several cities such as Cambridge, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ but the most important one set up in London. The march in London was composed of more than 50,000 persons, but was overshadowed by violence. Indeed, the demonstration turned into a violent riot when some demonstrators began to attack the headquarters of the Conservative Party breaking some windows and burning some Nick Cleggs and David Camerons effigies on the roof of the building. David Cameron answered to the media that he would not change his mind on this bill and denounced the extreme violence of this riot. Another march was organized on November 2010, 24th by the National Campaign Against Fees and Cuts (NCAFC). Taking into consideration the event of November, 10th the Metropolitan Police deployed more than 1,000 policemen throughout London. This time, this protest turned into a violent clash between policemen and protesters. On December, 9th, date of the governmental vote, another protest happened in Trafalgar Square. More than clashes between policemen and rioters, this time some protestors attacked a Royal car transporting Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall. The couple was not injured by the attack. To understand why this protest turned into a violent riot, one has to understand the impact of such a measure on students lifestyle. New students hardships Students indebted All those changes in less than 20 years largely impacted students lifestyle. The tuitions fees are extremely expensive, and could be a curb on students choice to go or not at university. Students have to choose between being in debt or to abandon the idea of studying. This is an important feature to take into account especially for the poorest students. According to The push universities guide (a British organisation which informs students on higher education), the average student debts could hit  £53,000 for the students starting their course in 2012. For those who started courses in 2011, it was estimated at  £26,100. The largest students indebted are the Londoners. It is easily understandable considering the expensive cost of living in the city. For example, a student who wants to pass a degree will have to pay  £27,000 just to have access to universities (if the university charges  £9,000), then will be in debt of more than  £28,000 (the inflation has to be taken into account). If the graduate begins to work and has an income of  £19,000, it is estimated that the student will pay off during 30 years before the debt would be written off. So, the student would have paid back around 67% of his debt. If the graduate has an income of  £25,000, he will pay off his debt during 18 years. The internal government figures reveal that only one quarter of students will be able to pay off their debt. Therefore, the majority of indebted student will never be able to pay off their loans. If the estimation turns to be accurate, it would underline a huge issue in the created system (millions of pounds would be lost) as well as the inefficiency of the measure taken. Several difficulties Students have to cope with others difficulties such as the need for a job. The number of full-time students with jobs rose by 54% in the last 10 years stated the Trades Union Congress in 2006. Most of students have to take part time jobs in order to survive because their families cannot afford the cost of the student life and because the maintenance loans do not offer enough money. 61 % of the students who have a part time job come from family with poor background. The average hours of a part time job for a student are 14 hours per week. Such an amount of hours have clearly an impact on their studies: they often miss classes, lectures, which lead to poorer attainments than the others students. Furthermore, those students have less leisure time, less social life than the other students. This phenomenon is not very different from France but the majority of students do not have the financial pressure of beginning their life with such an amount of loans. Moreover, by creating such a financial pressure, the students choice about his job would depend on this income (in order to be able to repay his debt and to afford a high standard of living). Some jobs might be abandoned by the graduates because of their salaries, and could create a new societal problem. Another feature is that students could not give up after a year to reorientate towards another course of study an academic year can cost up to  £9,000 to choose a wrong course of study can be very expensive. To sum up, Higher Education underwent some mains shifts by the last decades, and the end is not yet in sight. Tuitions fees are still a burning issue. Indeed the reforms come into force only this year, in September 2012, that is the reason why we cannot analyse yet the real impact on the society and also there are only estimations. But some shortcomings already appear such as the inefficiency of the Student Loan system, which could lead to another social problem: if the majority of students would not be able to pay off their debts, who would reimburse it? Moreover, after the breaking pledge of Nick Clegg on the rising of tuition fees he recognized and apologized publicly in the media only on September 2012 the deputy prime minister went down in the opinion polls. Sources

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Occupational Stress and Health Essay example -- Business Management St

Occupational Stress and Health Introduction In recent years, occupational stress and health have gained considerable importance to people in all forms life. Keeping in mind, the excessive work load, amount of time spent at work and the recent changes that are affecting the nature of work, it is not surprising that work stress today is increasing (Szymanski, 1999). Stress can be caused due to a number of reasons and in many ways and those things are known as stressors which may vary from person to person. According to the United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (1999), job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. It can also lead to poor health and even injury. People should be made more aware about the symptoms of stress and try to precautionary measures before it affect their lives. Stress at work can affect people both mentally and physically. Excessively high levels of stress need to be controlled in order to avoid these health related problems. A number of things can be done by employees and employers to prevent workplace stress. Also, there are a number of stress management techniques that can be used by people to ensure that they lead a stress free life. Job related stressors should be identified and dealt with so that an organisation and its employees can operate efficiently and effectively. Identifying stressors at work The list of potential stressors is limitless. There may be times when these are actually of use to us, creating simply a pressure s... ...herwise, when unplanned things happen, it’ll cause you just as much stress as trying to work without a plan. References & Bibliography International labour organisation – safe work program Kendall, E., Murphee, P., O’Neill, V. & Bursnall, S. (2000). A report to the workers’ compensation and rehabilitation commission (Western Australia).Occupational Stress: Factors that contribute to its occurrence and effective management. Centre for Human services (Griffith University). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Szymanski, E. M. (1999). Disability, job stress, the changing nature of careers, and the career resilience portfolio. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin. 42, pp 279-284.